Hand-made sherds from a field with code K2 in the sandy Belgian Kempen / Campine region ( see global position in regional map above) between the villages of Dilsen -Stokkem and Opoeteren/ Neeroeteren are about to be examined. At K3 hand-made sherds were found among some flint artifacts and some Roman sherds.These flint artifacts might have been used during the early Bronze Age.
At K2, the sherds were accompanied by both Mesolithic and Neolithic flint finds, and, additional by a bronze age flint point.
|A late Neolithic- Early Bronze age flint point from the field K2 in the Belgian Kempen area|
A lot of what appears to be quartz -tempered sherds from the Late Bronze Age period were found, but these are not decorated.
Only 6 out of several hundreds sherds were decorated with a stripe or zigzag motif (see image below)
|Decoration on the sherds mainly occurs on the more thin untempered sherds, at the rim. Two exceptions are visible in the picture: to row middle, bottom row left are tempered sherds. These sherds are probably contemporary with the Roman period|
The decoration varied between regular, obvious 'integrated' in the pots design and other, more irregular stripes that seems to be added upon the wall texture of the pot.
The first type could point to a possible late Iron age date, while the second type of decoration ( geometric patterns) has been applied during the Late Bronze age period. The temper of pulverized quartz/ quartzite in combination with the raw outside of the more thin sherds and the smooth outside for the relative thick sherds underline the possible Late Bronze age- Early Iron age period for these sherds (Van den Broeke, 2012).
A possible, preliminary date for the sherds would be partially between 1100 and 500 - 200 BC.
This would suggest a possible very long habitation for the field K2, ranging from the Late Mesolithic to the Iron Age period. The main reason for such a long habitation in this area would be
- the availability of fresh water from a source near the field, in combination with a well drained, partially elevated surface in the sub-locus
- the crossing of several habitat situations at the plateau's edge: a rather different prehistoric vegetation type occurred on the sandy slopes and the plateau as well as on the middle fluvial terraces; this leading to different habitat locations for both the local flora and fauna
- easy exploitation of the sandy area at the flat plateau
- availability of raw materials like large cobbles, fluvial flint
Retouched flint borer, made of fluvial flint
A fragmented sherd with unclear 'decoration'.
Maasmechelen - K3 location, some finds
At a plowed field ( code K3) in the community of Maasmechelen in the Belgian Kempen area, flint debris was found among it not only decortification flakes and ( burned) laminar elements , but also a large reworked flake and a nice scraper.
This is what would be the reflection of late Neolithic to early Bronze Age activities at a more large surface measuring ca 100 x 100 m. which is at the highest part of the field.
The scattered pattern demonstrates both the erosional process and the work of the plow: no real concentrations of flint where visible. On the other hand, some 'concentrations' of sherds of indigenous , handmade pottery exist, at least these were found within a limited area of about 10 by 20 m.
So the pottery sherds where found in a different part of the field , next to the flint.
Finds from this location are also ranging from the Late Bronze Age period- Roman period.
Flint arrow point from the Late Neolithic/ Early Bronze Age period , attributed at the Klokbeker cultuur ( Beaker culture , ca 2100 BC). Image : Arbannig finds, bronze age
Sherds of handmade pottery with a crude quartz temper, probably from the Bronze Age period, found together with the flint point ( previous image). Image : Arbannig finds, bronze age
Polishing stone, probably from the Bronze Age period. The polishing of cutting edges with different sizes is still visible. Image : Arbannig finds, bronze ageConclusions
Since only a few sherds show any decoration and rim sherds are almost absent, it is very difficult to attribute hand- made sherds to a certain period.
Lot of sherds were tempered with a pulverized quartz and sometimes even with charcoal. The outside and inner side of a pot often were covered with thin, wet clay ("besmeten") which is typical for pottery with an Iron Age date.The diversity in appearance of the sherds ( colors, thickness, temper, etc.) could either be the result of the original location in the pot, or indicate the diversity of different pots, but this is unknown.
This site K2 shows, that suitable ( prehistoric) locations, could have served as habitation sites for many thousands of years.
Images Brugge/ Ommeland Raakvlak , images iron age sherds
HANDLEIDING voor het beschrijven van aardewerk uit de IJzertijd en inheems-Romeinsaardewerk uit Midden-Delfland IPL 1992 Leiden Universiteit download
Van den Broeke, P. (2012) Het handgevormde aardewerk uit de ijzertijd en de Romeinse tijd van Oss-Ussen Studies naar typochronologie, technologie en herkomst; PhD Thesis, Leiden University, the Netherlands, Sidestone Press DissertationsVerhoeven A. A. A. (1998) Middeleeuws Gebruiksaardewerk in Nederland:
8ste-13de Eeuw ; Amsterdam University Press, Kugeltopf.